The gear reducer plays a role in matching the rotation speed and transmitting torque between the prime mover and the working machine or actuator. The industrial gearbox is a relatively precise machine. The purpose of using it is to reduce the speed and increase the torque.according to the number of transmission stages industrial gearbox can be divided into single-stage and multi-stage. According to the shape of the gear factory wheel, gear reducer can be divided into cylindrical gear reducers, bevel gear reducers, and cone-cylindrical lead gear reducers. Divided into expansion type, split type, and co-axial gear reducer. The gearbox is an independent component composed of gear transmission, worm transmission, and gear-worm transmission enclosed in a rigid housing. It often used as a reduction transmission between the prime mover and the working machine. It plays the role of matching speed and torque transmission between the prime mover and the working machine or actuator. It is widely used in modern machinery.
△ Gear reducer structure
1.Box and box cover
The box body and the box cover are the supporting and accommodating parts of the transmission parts in the industrial gearbox. The gearbox structure is complicated. The gearbox body is under pressure and requires good rigidity, vibration damping, and sealing. When the box cover and box body are produced in small batches, they are made of gray cast iron (HTl50 or HT200) by manual molding; or they are made of carbon structural steel (Q235A) and welded by manual arc welding. For mass production, gray cast iron is used and cast by machine molding.
2.Shafts, gear shafts, and gears
Shafts, gear shafts, and gears are important transmission parts in the industrial gearbox. The combined action of short and twisted shafts of shafts and gear shafts requires good comprehensive mechanical properties; gear shafts and gear teeth Partly subject to larger contact stress and bending stress, it should have the good abrasion resistance and high strength. For single-piece production, medium carbon steel (45 steel) is formed by the free forging method or tire die forging method. It can also be formed by turning round rods of medium carbon steel. For large-scale production, it is formed by medium carbon steel die forging.
The rolling bearing in the gear reducer is subject to radial and axial compressive stress, which requires high strength and wear resistance. Rolling bearings are standard parts, and the inner and outer rings are forged with flared bearing steel (GCrl5), the balls are spirally rolled with rolling bearing steel (GCrl5), and the cage is stamped from high-quality carbon structural steel (08 steel).
4.Bearing end cover
The bearing end cap is mainly to prevent the bearing from moving and to play a protective role. For single-piece and small-batch production, grey cast iron (HT150) is used for manual molding and casting, or carbon structural steel (Q235) round steel is turned. For mass production, gray cast iron machines are used for molding.
5.Bolts and nuts
Bolts and nuts play a role in fixing the box cover and the box body, and the bolt rod is subject to longitudinal (axial) tensile stress, bending stress, and transverse shear stress.
Composition of worm gear reducer
△ Worm gear reducer structure
The basic structure of the worm gear reducer is mainly composed of the worm gear, shaft, bearing, box, and its accessories. It can be divided into three basic structural parts: box body, worm gear, bearing, and shaft combination. The box is the base of all the accessories in the worm reducer. It is an important accessory that supports the fixed shaft system components, ensures the correct relative position of the transmission accessories, and supports the load acting on the reducer. Worm gear and worm shaft mainly transfer motion and power between two staggered shafts. The main role of bearings and shafts is power transmission, operation, and efficiency improvement.
1. The oil cover/ventilator mainly used to exhaust the gas in the turbine worm reducer case.
2. End caps are divided into large end caps and small end caps. The end caps are used to fix the axial position of the shafting components and bear axial loads. Both ends of the bearing housing holes are closed with bearing caps.
3. Oil seals are mainly used to prevent the leakage of the lubricant inside the chassis and increase the use time of the lubricant.
4. Oil drain plug, which is mainly used for draining dirty oil and cleaning when changing lubricating oil.
5. Oil gauge cover/oil gauge is mainly used to observe whether the oil quantity inside the turbine worm reducer case reaches the standard.
Note for gear reducer usage
1. Hammering is strictly prohibited
When the output shaft of the reducer is installed with coupling parts such as couplings, pulleys, sprocket wheels, direct hammering cannot be used. Because the output shaft structure of the reducer cannot withstand axial hammering, it can be screwed in with screw holes at the shaft end. Press the screw into the coupling.
2. Be sure to install a vent cap (exhaust plug)
Before use, replace the block at the highest position with an exhaust screw plug to ensure that the body exhausts gas when the reducer is running. If it is not replaced in time, the reducer will run for a long time, which will cause the gas in the reducer to swell the oil seal and cause the reducer to leak oil.
3. Change the lubricant in time, paying special attention to the first time.
Special attention should be paid to the first oil change. After the first operation of the reducer, the oil should be changed in time after 300-400 hours, and the oil should be changed every 1500-2000 hours. The gearbox cleaning machine uses the gearbox’s original oil supply and drainage system and the filtered old oil to realize the functions of cleaning the gearbox, quickly filtering waste oil, and filling new oil. The operation process does not change hardware facilities and does not add The cleaning agent ensures the safe operation of the gearbox and extends the service life. In addition, in a harsh working environment, high temperature, and dusty workplaces, the lubricant should be checked every half a month. If there is dirt on the lubricant, replace the lubricant to keep the lubricant clean and extend the use of the reducer. Life and improve economic efficiency.
Common failures of gear reducer
1. Many operating errors: due to insufficient understanding of the structure and performance of the reducer, such as the cycloid reducer (especially for new operators), it is easy to cause failure due to operating errors, and even cause mechanical and safety accidents.
2. Fast wear speed: due to the factors such as processing, assembly, and debugging of the new reducer parts, the contact area of the mating surface is small, and the allowable torque is large. During the operation of the reducer, the concave and convex portions on the surface of the parts are fitted and rubbed against each other, and the metal scraps that have fallen off, like abrasives, continue to participate in friction, which accelerates the wear of the mating surfaces of the parts. Therefore, during the running-in period, parts and components (especially the mating surfaces) are easily worn, and the wear speed is too fast. At this time, if it is overloaded, it may cause damage to components and cause early failure.
3. Looseness: Newly assembled components have deviations in geometry and fit dimensions. At the beginning of use, due to the impact of alternating loads such as shock and vibration, as well as heat and deformation, and excessive wear and tear For other reasons, it is easy to loosen the original tightened parts.
4. Poor lubrication: due to the small clearance of the newly assembled components, and due to assembly and other reasons, the lubricant (grease) is not easy to form a uniform oil film on the friction surface to prevent wear. As a result, the lubricating efficiency is reduced, causing early abnormal wear of the parts. In severe cases, it can cause scratches or occlusions of the friction surface of the precision fitting, resulting in failure.
5. Leakage occurs: due to loose parts, vibration, and heat of the reducer, there will be leakage at the sealing surface of the reducer and pipe joints; some defects such as casting are difficult to find during assembly and debugging, but Due to the vibration and impact during the operation, this defect is exposed and it appears as oil leakage (seepage). Therefore, leakage occurs occasionally during the break-in period.
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